Prostate adenoma is a benign tumor that forms from the stroma of the prostate or glandular epithelium. This disease is completely curable if diagnosed in a timely manner and treated according to a doctor’s recommendations. Unfortunately, not all men take their health seriously, and often they come to the doctor with an advanced stage of the disease, which is more difficult to treat. Therefore, it is important to know the symptoms of the pathology and the causes that lead to its development.
Synonyms for the disease include prostate adenoma and benign prostatic hyperplasia. The prostate is an organ composed of lobes of glandular tissue and connective tissue, or stroma. The prostate produces a secretion that supports normal sperm function.
The dynamics of the development of prostate adenoma are bleak. According to the National Institute of Diabetes and Digestive and Kidney Diseases, symptoms of prostate enlargement are rare before the age of 40, but almost 50% of men suffer from adenoma between the ages of 51 and 60. After the age of 80, 90% of elderly men have it.
The frequency of occurrence of adenoma depends on the racial identity and dietary habits of people in different countries. Representatives of the Negroid race are more likely to develop this disease than others, while residents of China and the Land of the Rising Sun are less likely to develop it due to a diet rich in phytosterols.
What are the reasons for the appearance of prostate adenoma in men?
The main cause of prostate adenoma (enlargement of the prostate) is a low level of testosterone, and as a result, a high level of estrogen. The closer to “male menopause” (the lower the testosterone), the higher the risk of developing prostate hyperplasia. The neuroendocrine regulation of prostate activity is of primary importance, with a decrease in testosterone production, the main male hormone, and an increase in estradiol concentration. This hormone is capable of stimulating the accelerated growth of prostate cells.
Factors contributing to the development of prostate adenoma
- Sedentary lifestyle and associated excess weight – adipose tissue produces estrogens;
- Genetic predisposition – cases of adenoma in relatives;
- Unhealthy diet – inclusion of fatty, fried foods with spicy spices in the diet;
- All other factors, such as insufficient sexual activity, the consequences of sexually transmitted infections, and harmful habits, have not been confirmed by scientific research.
Main symptoms of prostate adenoma
Obstructive symptoms of adenoma related to impaired urination:
- Feeling of an incompletely emptied bladder – normally in men, there is a feeling of an empty bladder after urination;
- Weak urine flow – urine is released with reduced speed;
- Intermittent urination in parts – normally it occurs without interruptions;
- Inability to urinate without straining the abdominal muscles;
- Dribbling at the end of urination – this symptom is impossible in normal conditions;
- Primary delay in urination – when the sphincter relaxes, urination is delayed.
- Irritative manifestations – symptoms of irritation of the tissues of the bladder:
- Frequent urination during the day – urination occurs 15-20 times a day, normally 4-6 times with a drinking regimen of 2.5 liters of fluid.
- Nocturia – 3 or more urinations at night, although normally there may be no urination during the night.
- False urges – an urge to urinate with no actual urination.
- Irritative symptoms occur because urine accumulates in the bladder for a long time.
The disrupted functioning of the detrusor muscle, which is responsible for the expulsion of urine, plays a significant role in the appearance of symptoms. Normally, it contracts when the neck of the bladder opens, but in adenoma, the detrusor is unstable. This is due to the effects of adrenergic agents, the concentration of which alters its activity, weakening its contractile ability. Hyperplasia foci impair the normal functioning of the bladder due to pathologically weakened blood supply.
The symptoms of the disease also depend on the stage at which it is at:
Negative sensations appear with an empty bladder.
The bladder’s function is disturbed, and it cannot completely empty after urination.
Paradoxical ischuria develops, when urine is almost not excreted with an overfilled bladder, and the bladder function stops.
How is prostate adenoma different from prostatitis?
These conditions are often confused, substituting concepts that differ from each other. Prostate adenoma is an increase in prostate tissue or hyperplasia. Prostatitis is an inflammatory process in the prostate gland.
Possible complications and consequences
Possible complications: If the first symptoms of prostate hyperplasia are ignored and a visit to the doctor is postponed, a minor problem can turn into a life-threatening condition with complications.
Complications of prostate adenoma
Acute urinary retention. This complication occurs at the 2nd or 3rd stage of the disease due to the compression of the urethra by the hypertrophied prostate gland. The provoking factors are stress, acute respiratory infections, hypothermia, alcohol consumption, prolonged sitting, fatigue, and delayed emptying of the bladder.
Symptoms of acute urinary retention include a full bladder, inability to fully empty the bladder, severe pain radiating to the penis and lower back. This complication is dangerous and can lead to acute renal failure, hydronephrosis, and coma, so the patient should be promptly hospitalized and the bladder catheterized.
Inflammation of the urinary tract. Stagnation processes in the bladder lead to bacterial growth, which can trigger the development of cystitis, urethritis, and pyelonephritis. Prevention of complications involves timely treatment of prostate adenoma.
Urolithiasis. Incomplete emptying of the bladder leads to the formation of microstones, stones, or mineral deposits in it. They can cause blockage of the bladder and urinary retention. Treatment involves surgical intervention during the removal of adenoma.
Hematuria. Appearance of erythrocytes in the urine, caused by varicose veins of the bladder neck. Hematuria can be macroscopic or microscopic. In the first case, the urine turns red, and in the second case, the diagnosis is made during laboratory analysis of the urine. This complication is differentiated from stones and tumor processes in the bladder.
Prevention and prognosis
To prevent the development of prostate adenoma, the following measures are recommended:
- Avoiding a sedentary lifestyle, and engaging in moderate physical activity and sports – physical activity can reduce the risk of blood stasis in the pelvic organs.
- Weight management and weight loss – this can accelerate metabolism and improve overall health.
- Avoiding tight clothing that restricts blood flow to the pelvic area, such as tight jeans, pants, or swimwear.
- Avoiding unprotected sex to prevent sexually transmitted infections.
- Annual visits to a urologist and blood tests for PSA after the age of 40 for early diagnosis of the disease.
- Modifying the diet by incorporating vegetables and fruits (up to 50% of the total diet), vitamin-rich foods, avoiding smoked, pickled, spicy, and excessively salty foods, limiting consumption of fatty and fried meat, excessive animal protein, cheese, strong tea and coffee. If prostate adenoma has started to develop, it is recommended to actively consume dairy products, legumes, boiled or baked lean meat.
Early diagnosis and proper treatment of prostate adenoma guarantee a favorable prognosis for the disease. However, delaying medical attention can lead to serious complications, including acute urinary retention, urolithiasis, and recurrent urinary tract infections. In severe cases, renal failure may develop, which can increase the risk of death. Prostate adenoma can also lead to prostate cancer if left untreated or diagnosed late. It is important to take preventive measures and seek medical attention promptly if any symptoms are experienced.